Author(s):

  • Helliwell, John
  • Layard, Richard
  • Sachs, Jeffrey

Abstract:

The report, published by the Earth Institute and co-edited by the institute’s director, Jeffrey Sachs, reflects a new worldwide demand for more attention to happiness and absence of misery as criteria for government policy. It reviews the state of happiness in the world today and shows how the new science of happiness explains personal and national variations in happiness.

Document:http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/47487/

References:
  1. 150Chavis, David M. (1983). ‘Sense of community in the urban envi-ronment: Benefits for human and neighborhood development’, doctoral dissertation, Nashville, TN.: Vanderbilt University.
  2. Choden, D. and Namgay, K. (1996). ‘Report on the findings and recommendations of the wild boar survey: project for assessmentof crop damage by the wild boar’, Thimphu: National Plant Protection Centre–Ministry of Agriculture-Royal Government of Bhutan.
  3. Chophel, Sangay (2010). ‘Cultural Diversity and Resilience’, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies [available at http://ns6.asphostserver.com/surveyReports/culture/culture.pdf accessed on 9 November 2011].
  4. Chouguley, Ulrike; Naylor, Richard and Rosemberg-Montes, Cristina (2011). ‘Edinburgh Festivals Impact Study. Final Report’, London: BOP Consulting, May.
  5. Chowdhury, N. and Skarstedt, C.E. (2005). ‘The Principle of Good Governance’, Oxford: Centre for International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL),
  6. March.Clark, Andrew E. and Senik, Claudia (2010). ‘Who Compares to Whom? The Anatomy of Income Comparisons in Europe’, The Economic Journal, 120 (May), pp. 573–594.
  7. Commission of the European Communities (1992). ‘Euroba-rometer 38’, Brussels: Commission of the European Communi-ties [available at http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb38/eb38_en.pdf accessed on 15 November 2011].
  8. Constitution of Bhutan (2008). The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan, Thimphu: Constitution of Bhutan [available at http://www.constitution.bt/TsaThrim%20Eng%20%28A5%29.pdf accessed on 15 November 2011].
  9. Cosmides, Leda and Tooby, John (2000). ‘The cognitive neuro-science of social reasoning’, in Gazzaniga, M. S. (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences, Second Edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1259-1270.
  10. Cox, Dianne; Frere, Marion; West, Sue and Wiseman, John. (2010). ‘The development and use of community wellbeing Indicators: Learning from Community Indicators Victoria’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 45:1, pp. 71-88.
  11. Cummins, Robert A.; Collard, James; Woerner, Jacqui; Weinberg, Melissa; Lorbergs, Markus and Perera, Charini. (2008). ‘The Wellbeing of Australians – Who Makes the Decisions, Health/Wealth Control, Financial Advice, and Handedness. Part A: The Report’, Victoria: Australian Unity Wellbeing Index (Report 22.0)
  12. Davidson, Richard J. (2004). ‘Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359, pp. 1395–1411.
  13. Davidson, Richard J.; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Schumacher, Jessica; Rosenkrantz, Melissa; Muller, Daniel; Santorelli, Saki F.; Urbanowski, Ferris; Harrington, Anne; Bonus, Katherine and Sheridan, John F. (2003). ‘Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation’, Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, pp. 564-570.
  14. Davidson, William B. and Cotter, Patrick R. (1986). ‘Measure-ment of sense of community within the sphere of city’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16:7, pp. 608-619.
  15. De Jesus, Maria; Puleo, Elaine; Shelton, Rachel C. and Emmons, Karen (2010). ‘Associations between perceived social environ-ment and neighborhood safety: Health implications’, Health and Place, 16:5, pp. 1007-1013.
  16. Deaton, Angus (2007). ‘Income, Aging, Health and Wellbeing Around The World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll’, Cam-bridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, August (NBER Working Paper Series, No. 13317).
  17. Deaton, Angus (2010). ‘Price indexes, inequality, and the mea-surement of world poverty’, American Economic Review, 100:1, pp. 5–34.
  18. Delaney, Liam and Keaney, Emily (2006). ‘Cultural Participa-tion, Social Capital and Civil Renewal in the United Kingdom: Statistical Evidence from National and International Survey Data’, London: Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), March[available at http://www.ippr.org/uploadedFiles/research/projects/Democracy/cultural%20participation%20social%20capital%20etc.pdf accessed on 24 September 2011].
  19. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) (2011). ‘Life satisfaction and other measures of wellbeing in England, 2007 – 2011. From the survey of public attitudes and behaviour towards the environment’, London: DEFRA (April) [available at http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/Statistical-Release-13-April-2011-wellbeing.pdf accessed on 10 November 2011]
  20. Dessallien, Renata (2005). Democracy, Good Governance and Happiness. Some views from the Kingdom of Bhutan, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies (Monograph 19).
  21. DeVellis, Robert F. (1991). Scale Development: Theory and Applica-tions, Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications.
  22. Dex, Shirley; Clark, Andrew and Taylor, Mark (1995). ‘House-hold Labour Supply’, Colchester: University of Essex (Depart-ment of Employment Research Series, 43).
  23. Diener, Ed (1984). ‘Subjective well-being’, Psychological Bulletin, 95:3, pp. 542-575. Diener, Ed (2000). ‘Subjective Wellbeing: The Science of Hap-piness and a Proposal for a National Index’, American Psycholo-gist, 55:1, p. 34-43 (January).65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1504/30/12 3:57 PM151World Happiness report
  24. Diener, Ed (2006). ‘Understanding Scores on the Satisfaction with Life Scale’, in Diener, Ed;
  25. Emmons, Robert A.; Larsen, Randy J. and Griffin, Sharon (eds.), Satisfaction With Life Scale Public Domain, 13 February [available at http://s.psych.uiuc.edu/~ediener/Documents/Understanding%20SWLS%20Scores.pdf accessed on 15 September 2011].
  26. Diener, Ed and Diener, Carol (1996). ‘Most people are happy’, Psychological Science, 7, 3, pp. 181-185.
  27. Diener, Ed and Emmons, Robert A. (1984). ‘The independence of positive and negative affect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, pp. 1105-1117.
  28. Diener, Ed; Emmons, Robert A.; Larsem, Randy J. and Griffin Sharon (1985). ‘The Satisfaction With Life Scale’, Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 1, pp. 71-75.
  29. Diener, Ed; Helliwell, John F. and Kahneman, Daniel (2010). International Differences in Wellbeing, New York: Oxford University Press.
  30. Diener, Ed and Iran-Nejad, A. (1986). ‘The relationship in experience between various types of affect’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, pp. 1031-1038.
  31. Diener, Ed and Pavot, William (1993). ‘Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale’, Psychological Assessment, 5, pp. 164-172.
  32. Diener, Ed and Seligman, Martin (2006). ‘Measure for Measure: The Case for a National Wellbeing Index’, Science and Spirit, March-April, pp. 36-37.
  33. Diener, Ed; Suh, Eunkook and Oishi, Shigehiro (1997). ‘Recent findings on subjective well-being’, Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, pp. 25-41.
  34. Dipietro, William R. and Anoruo, Emmanuel (2006). ‘GDP per capita and its challengers as measures of happiness’, 33:10, p. 698-709.
  35. Diprose, Rachael (2007). ‘Physical safety and security: a proposal for internationally comparable indicators of violence’, Oxford Devel-opment Studies, 35(4), 431-458.
  36. Dixon, David H. (ed.) (2000). Controversies in Macroeconomics Growth, Trade and Policy, Oxford: Blackwell.
  37. Dolan, Paul; Peasgood, Tessa and White, Mathew (2008). ‘Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective wellbeing’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, pp. 94-122.
  38. Doolittle, R. J. and MacDonald D. (1978). ‘Communication and a sense of community in a metropolitan neighborhood: A factor analytic examination’, Communication Quarterly, 26, pp. 2-7.
  39. Doran, S. M.; Van Dongen, Hans P. and Dinges, David F. (2001). ‘Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: Evi-dence of state instability’, Archives of Italian Biology: Neuroscience, 139:3, pp. 253–267.
  40. Duckett, S. and Swerissen, H. (1996). ‘Specific Purpose Programs in Human Services and Health: Moving from an Input to an Output and Outcome Focus’, Australian Journal of Public Adminis-tration, 55, pp. 7–17.
  41. Easterlin, Richard A. (2003). ‘Explaining Happiness’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100:19, pp. 11176-11183.
  42. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) (2000). ‘Role of Environmental Awareness in Achieving Sustainable Development’, Santiago: ECLAC, 23 November [avail-able at http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/4/8824/lcr1961i.pdf accessed on 10 October 2011].
  43. Egloff, Boris (1998). ‘The independence of positive and negative affect depends on the affect measure,’ Personality and Individual Differences, 25:6, pp.1101-1109.
  44. Ekman, Paul, (1992). ‘Are there basic emotions?’, Psychological Review, 99:3, pp. 550-3.
  45. Ekman, Paul; Davidson, Richard J.; Ricard, Matthieu and Wallace, B. Alan (2005). ‘Buddhist and Psychological Perspectives on Emotions and Well-Being’, American Psychological Society, 14:2, pp. 59-63.
  46. Elvik, R. (1995). ‘The validity of using health state indexes in mea-suring the consequences of traffic injury for public health’, Social science & medicine, 40:10, pp. 1385-98.
  47. Environics (1995). ‘The Environmental Monitor: Global Public Opinion on the Environment’, brochure.European Coordination Office (1992). ‘Europeans and the Environ-ment. Survey conducted in the context of the Eurobarometer 37.0’, Brussels: European Coordination Office, August.
  48. The EuroQol Group (1990). ‘EuroQol–a new facility for the mea-surement of health-related quality of life’, Health Policy, 16:3, pp. 199-208.Eurostat (2009). Harmonised European time use surveys. 2008 guide-lines, Luxembourg: European Communities, (Eurostat methodologies and working papers).
  49. Evans, A. Steven (2006). ‘Preserving the Consciousness of a Na-tion: Promoting ‘Gross National Happiness’ in Bhutan Through Her Rich Oral Traditions’, Journal of Bhutan Studies, Volume 15, Winter.
  50. Fagan, Jeffrey and Davies, Garth (2007). ‘The Political Economy of the Crime Decline in New York City’, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Advancement of Science, San Francisco, February.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1514/30/12 3:57 PM152
  51. Feeney, J. A. (1995). ‘Adult attachment and emotional control’, Personal Relationships, 2, pp. 143–159.Fiedler, Klaus and Bless, Herbert (2001). ‘The formation of beliefs in the interface of affective and cognitive processes’, in Frijda, Nico; Manstead, Antony and Bem, Sacha (eds.), The influence of emotions on beliefs, New York: Cambridge University Press.Field, John (2003). Social Capital, New York: Routledge.
  52. Filmer, Deon and Pritchett, Lant (2001). ‘Estimating Wealth Effects Without Expenditure Data—Or Tears: An Application To Educational Enrollments In States of India’, Demography, 38:1, pp. 115–132.
  53. Fischer, Justina AV, (2009). ‘Subjective Wellbeing as Welfare Measure: Concepts and Methodology’, Paris: OECD, (July) [avail-able at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16619/1/MPRA_pa-per_16619.pdf accessed on 9 September 2011]
  54. Fleming, Robin and Spellerberg, Anne (1999). Using Time Use Data. A history of time use surveys and uses of time use data, Wel-lington: Statistics New Zealand TeTariTatau.
  55. Francis, Paul (2002). ‘Social Capital at the World Bank Strategic and Operational Implications of the Concept’, Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, March.
  56. Fredrickson, Barbara L. (2000).‘Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being’, Prevention and Treatment, 3:1, article ID 1.Frey, Bruno S. and Stutzer, Alois (2007). ‘Should National Happi-ness Be Maximized?’, University of Zurich, March (Working Paper Series, No. 306).
  57. Friedman, Danny (2010). ‘Social impact of poor housing’, Lon-don: ECOTEC, March.Friedman, Danny (2010). ‘Social impact of poor housing’, Lon-don: ECOTEC, March.
  58. Fujiwara, Takeo and Kawachi, Ichiro (2008). ‘Social Capital and Health. A Study of Adult Twins in the U.S.’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35:2, pp. 139-144.
  59. Galay, Karma (2009). ‘Time Use and Happiness’, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies.Gallup (2011). ‘Environment’, Washington, D. C.: Gallup [avail-able at http://www.gallup.com/poll/1615/environment.aspxaccessed on 13 November 2011].
  60. Goldberg, David P. and Blackwell, B. (1970). ‘Psychiatric illness in general practice: a detailed study using a new method of case identification’, British Medical Journal, 2, pp. 438-443.
  61. Gordon, D. (2006). ‘The concept and measurement of poverty’, in Pantazis, C.; Gordon, D. and R. Levitas (eds.), Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain: The Millennium Survey, Bristol: The Policy Press, pp. 29–69.
  62. Graham, Carol (2005). ‘The Economics of Happiness.Insights on globalization from a novel approach’, World Economics, 6:3, July–September, pp. 41-65.
  63. Granger, C. V.; Cotter, A. C.; Hamilton, B. B. and Fiedler, R. C. (1993). ‘Functional assessment scales: a study of persons after stroke’, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74:2, pp. 133-138.
  64. Green, Donald Philip; Goldman, Susan L. and Salovey, Peter (1993). ‘Measurement error masks bipolarity in affect ratings’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, pp. 1029-1041.
  65. Harvey, Carol; Pantelis, Christos; Taylor, Jason; McCabe, Patrick; Lefevre, Karen; Campbell, Patrick and Hirsch, Steven R. (1996). ‘The Camden schizophrenia surveys: II. High prevalence of schizophrenia in an inner London borough and its relationship of sociodemographic factors’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, pp. 418–426.
  66. Heberlein, Thomas A. (2005) ‘Environmental Attitudes’, Abhandlungen, 2, 81,241—270 [available at http://www.drs.wisc.edu/documents/articles/heberlein/EnvironmentalAttitudes.pdf accessed on 24 September 2011].
  67. Hedley, T. P. (1998). ‘Measuring Public Sector Effectiveness Us-ing Private Sector Methods’, Public Productivity and Management Review, 21, pp. 251-258.
  68. Helliwell, John F. and Wang, Shun (2011). ‘Trust and wellbeing’, International Journal of Wellbeing, 1, 1, pp. 42-78.
  69. Hennessy, Catherine Hagan; Moriarty, David G.; Zack, Matthew M.; Scherr, Paul A. and Brackbill, Robert (1994). ‘Measuring health-related quality of life for public health surveillance’, Public Health Reports, 109, pp. 665-672.
  70. Hillyard, Paddy; Kelly, Grace; McLaughlin, Eithne; Patsios, Demi and Tomlinson, Mike (2003). Bare Necessities: Poverty and Social Exclusion in Northern Ireland – Key Findings, Belfast: Democratic Dialogue.
  71. Hötte, Michiel and Bereznuk, Sergei (2001). ‘Compensation for livestock kills by tigers and leopards in Russia’, Carnivore Dam-age Prevention News, 3, pp. 6–7.
  72. Huppert, Felicia A. (2005). ‘Positive emotions and cognition: de-velopmental, neuroscience and health perspectives’ in Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behavior, Proceed-ings of the 8th Sydney Symposium 2005, New York: Psychology Press.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1524/30/12 3:57 PM153World Happiness report
  73. Ibrahim, Solava and Alkire, Sabina (2007). ‘Agency and empower-ment: a proposal for internationally comparable indicators’, Oxford Development Studies, 35(4), 379-403
  74. .Iizuka, Michiko (2000). ‘Role of Environmental Awareness in Achieving Sustainable Development’, Santiago: Economic Com-mission for Latin America and the Caribbean [available at http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/4/8824/lcr1961i.pdf accessed on 14 November 2011].
  75. International Labour Organisation (ILO) (1919). Convention Limit-ing the Hours of Work in Industrial Undertakings to Eight in the Day and Forty-eight in the Week, Washington: ILO.Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) (1996).
  76. ‘International Social Survey Program: Environ-ment, 1993’ Ann Arbor: ICPSR.Ironmonger, D ( 1999). ‘An Overview of Time Use Surveys’. Paper presented at UNESCAP Time Use Seminar Ahmedabad, India, 7-10 December 1999. Available at <http: //www.economics.un-imelb.edu.au/ Household / Papers/1999/ AhmedabadPaper2.pdf> [Accessed on 19.1.2012]
  77. Itay, Anat (2009). ‘Israel’s Progress Index: A Multi-Layered Model for Measuring Progress and Quality Of Life’, presented in The 3rd OECD World Forum on ‘Statistics, Knowledge and Policy’ Charting Progress, Building Visions, Improving Life, Busan 27-30 October [electronic source http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/20/44096120.pdf, accessed on 6 September 2011]
  78. Jabeen, Nasira (2007). ‘Good or good enough governance in South Asia: constraints and possibilities’, Address at Utrecht University, April 2.
  79. Johns, Helen and Ormerod, Paul (2007). Happiness, Economics and Public Policy, London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
  80. Johns, Helen and Ormerod, Paul (2008). ‘The unhappy thing about happiness economics’, real-world economics review, 46, March, pp. 139-146[available at http://www.paecon.net/PAERe-view/issue46/JohnsOrmerod46.pdf accessed on 9 September 2011]
  81. Johns, Helen and Ormerod, Paul (2009). Reply to Dan Turton. real-world economics review, 49 (March), pp. 91-93. Available at <http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue49/Johns49.pdf accessed on 9 September 2011>
  82. Jylhä, Marttila (2009). ‘What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model’, Social Sci-ence and Medicine; 69:3, pp. 307-16.
  83. Kahneman, Daniel and Deaton, Angus (2010). ‘High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional wellbeing’, Pro-ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September [available at www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1011492107 accessed on 9 September 2011]
  84. Kahneman, Daniel; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Schreiber, Charles. A. and Redelmeier, Donald A. (1993). ‘When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end’, Psychological Science, 4, pp. 401-405.
  85. Kahneman, Daniel and Krueger, Alan B. (2006). ‘Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Wellbeing’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20:1, pp. 3-24.
  86. Kahneman, Daniel; Krueger, Alan B.; Schkade, David; Schwarz, Norbert and Stone, Arthur (2004). ‘The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM): Instrument Documentation’, July [available at www.krueger.princeton.edu/drm_documentation_july_2004.pdf accessed on 15 September 2011].
  87. Kahneman, Daniel; Krueger, Alan B.; Schkade, David, Schwarz, Norbert and Stone, Arthur A. (2006). ‘Would You Be Happier If You Were Richer? A Focusing Illusion’, Brussels: The Centre for European Policy Studies, May (CEPS Working Paper No. 125) [avail-able at: http://www.princeton.edu/ceps/workingpapers/125krueger.pdf accessed on 9 November 2011].
  88. Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R. and Veenhoven, R. (2011). ‘Happi-ness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations’, Social Indicators Research, 102, pp. 497–515.
  89. Kaplan, Robert M. and Bush, James W. (1982). ‘Health-related quality of life measurement for evaluation research and policy analysis’, Health Psychology, 1, pp. 61-80.
  90. Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart and Mastruzzi, Massimo (2005). ‘Governance matters IV: governance indicators for 1996-2004’, Washington, D. C.: The World Bank (Policy Research Working Paper Series 3630).
  91. Kinga, Sonam (2001). ‘The Attributes and Values of Folk and Popu-lar Songs’, Journal of Bhutan Studies, 3, pp. 132–170.
  92. Kleinman, Arthur (1995). Writing at the Margin: Discourse Between Anthropology and Medicine, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  93. Kleitman, Nathaniel (1963). Sleep and Wakefulness, Chicago: Chi-cago University Press, Second edition.
  94. Larsen, Jeff T.; McGraw, A. Peter and Cacioppo, John T. (2001). ‘Can people happy and sad at the same time?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, pp. 684-696.
  95. Leahy, Robert L. (1997). ‘Introduction: Fundamentals of Cognitive Therapy’ in Leahy, Robert L. (ed.), From Practicing Cognitive Thera-py: A Guide to Interventions, Northvale: Jason Aronson, pp. 1-11.
  96. Lee, Sangheon; McCann, Deirdre and Messenger, Jon C. (2007). Working Time Around the World. Trends in working hours, laws and policies in a global comparative perspective. New York: Routledge – International Labour Organization.
  97. Legatum Institute (2010). ‘Methodology. The Legatum Prosperity Index’, Dubai: The Legatum Institute.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1534/30/12 3:57 PM154
  98. Lepper, Jonathan and McAndrew, Siobhan (2008). ‘Developments in the economics of wellbeing’, London: HM Treasury, November (Treasury Economic Working Paper, No.4).
  99. Levine, Edward L. and Xu, Xian (2005). ‘Development and Valida-tion of the State-Trait Emotion Measure (STEM)’, Paper presented at the 20th AnnualConference of the Society for Industrial andOrganizational Psychology, Los Angeles, April.
  100. Lupton, Ruth and Power, Anne (2005). ‘Disadvantaged by where you live? New Labour and neighbourhood renewal’, in Hills, John and Stewart, Kitty (eds.), A More Equal Society? New Labour, Poverty, Inequality and Exclusion, Bristol: The Policy Press.
  101. Mahoney, Florence I. and Barthel, Dorothea W. (1965). ‘Function-al evaluation: the Barthel Index’, Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, pp. 56-61.
  102. McBride, Michael (2010). ‘Money, happiness, and aspirations: An experimental study’, Journal of Economic Behaviorand Organiza-tion, 74, pp. 262–276.
  103. McDowell, Ian and Newell, Claire (1996). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires, New York: Oxford Univer-sity Press, Second ed.
  104. McGillivray, Mark and Clarke, Matthew (eds.) (2006). Under-standing Human Well-being, New York: United Nations University Press.
  105. McHorney, Colleen A. (1999). ‘Health status assessment methods for adults past accomplishments and future challenges’, Annual Review of Public Health, 20, pp. 309-335.
  106. McHorney, Colleen A.; Ware, J. E. and Raczek, A. E. (1993) ‘The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychomet-ric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs’, Medical Care, 31, pp. 247-263.
  107. McMillan, David (1976).‘Sense of community: An attempt at definition’, unpublished manuscript, Nashville, TN.: George Peabody College for Teachers, Vanderbilt University.Michalos, Alex; Sharpe, Andrew; Arsenault, Jean-François; Mu-hajarine, Nazeem; Labonté, Ronald; Scott, Katherine; Shookner, Malcolm; Moore, Kelley; Swystun, Lenore; Holden, Bill; Bernar-din, Heather; Dunning, Beth and Graham, Paul (2010). ‘An Ap-proach to the Canadian Index of Wellbeing. Methodology Report’, Waterloo: The Canadian Index of Wellbeing Network – University of Waterloo.
  108. Montgomery, Mark R.; Gragnolati, Michele; Burke, Kathleen A. and Paredes, Edmundo (2000). ‘Measuring Living Standards With Proxy Variables’, Demography, 37:2, pp. 155–74.
  109. Morris, Saul S.; Carletto, Calogero; Hoddinott, John and Christi-aensen, Luc J. M. (2000). ‘Validity of rapid estimates of house-hold wealth and income for health surveys in rural Africa’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, pp. 381-387.
  110. Nesse, Randolph M. (2004). ‘Natural selection and the elusive-ness of happiness’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359, 1333–1347.
  111. Nunnally, Jum C. (1978). Psychometric theory, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition.
  112. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1995). ‘Toward a Framework for Re-evaluating the Policy Implications of Unpaid Work’, Paris: Working Party on the Role of Women in the Economy 20th Meeting, October.
  113. OECD (2009). Society at a Glance. OECD Social Indicators. Special Focus: Measuring Leisure in OECD Countries, Paris: OECD.
  114. OECD (2010). ‘Eurostat: Feasibility study for Subjective Wellbeing indicators. Task 4: Critical review’, March. [available at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/gdp_and_beyond/docu-ments/Feasibility_study_Wellbeing_Indicators.pdf accessed on 9 September 2011].
  115. OECD (2011). ‘Key Findings on Chapter 1: Unpaid Work’, in OECD, Society at a Glance 2011 – OECD Social Indicators, 12 April [available at www.oecd.org/els/social/indicators/SAG accessed on 22 September 2011].
  116. Office for National Statistics (2011). ‘Measuring wellbeing. Measuring what matters?’, National Statistician’s Reflections on the National Debate on Measuring National Wellbeing’, London: ONS (July).
  117. Oswald, Andrew (2010). ‘Emotional Prosperity, not GDP’, The Economist, April.Paloutzian, Raymond F. and Ellison, Craig W. (1982). Manual for the Spiritual Well-being Scale, Nyack, NY: Life Advance, Inc.
  118. Parke, Ross D. and O’Neil, Robin L. (1999). ‘Neighborhoods of southern California children and families’, Future of Children, 9:2, pp. 58-63.
  119. Pavot, William and Diener, Ed (1993). ‘Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale’, Psychological Assessment, 5:2, pp. 164-172.
  120. Penjore, Dorji and Rapten, Phuntsho (2008). ‘Political Pursuit of Gross National Happiness’, Bangkok: International Conference on ‘Buddhism in the Age of Consumerism’, Mahidol University (1-3 December).
  121. Pentland, Wendy E. and McColl, Mary Ann (1999). ‘Application of Time Use Research to the Study of Life with a Disability’ in Pentland, Wendy E.; Harvey, Andrew S.; Lawton, M. Powell and McCoil, Mary Ann (eds.), Time Use Research in the Social Sciences, New York: Kiuwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, pp. 169-188.
  122. Prakke, Diederik (2005). ‘The Buddhist Truth of Happiness, Spirituality and Development. The case of governance in Bhutan’, Journal of Bhutanese Studies, 12, pp. 119-165.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1544/30/12 3:57 PM155World Happiness report
  123. Putnam, Robert D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  124. Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York: Simon and Schuster.
  125. Qi, Yaqiang; Hu, Peifeng and Mason, William M. (2009). ‘A Com-parative Analysis of Self-Rated General Health in Three Developing Countries’, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Popula-tion Association of America, Detroit 29 April-2 May.
  126. Rahman, Omar; Menken, Jane and Kuhn, Randall (2004). ‘The Impact of Family Members on Self-Reported Health of Elderly Men and Women in Rural Bangladesh’, Ageing and Society, 24, pp. 903-920.
  127. Rapten, Phuntsho (2010). ‘Good Governance and Gross National Happiness’, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies [avail-able at http://www.grossnationalhappiness.com/surveyReports/goodGovernance/Good_Governance_final.pdf accessed on 14 September 2011].
  128. Reed, Pamela (1987). ‘Spirituality and Well-Being In Terminally Ill Hospitalized Adults’, Research in Nursing and Health, 10, pp. 335-344.
  129. Renn, Daniela; Pfaffenberger, Nicole; Platter, Marion; Mitmansgru-ber, Horst; Cummins, Robert A. and Hofer, Stefan (2009). ‘Inter-national Wellbeing Index: The Austrian Version’, Social Indicators Research, 90, pp. 243–256.
  130. Reyles, Diego Z. (2007). ‘The ability to go about without shame: a proposal for international comparable indicators on shame and humiliation’, Oxford Development Studies, 35(4), 405-430.
  131. Riger, S. and Lavrakas, P. (1981). ‘Community ties: Patterns of attachment and social interaction in urban neighbourhoods’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, pp. 55–66.
  132. Rinzin, Chhewang; Vermeulen, Walter J. V. and Glasbergen, Pieter (2007). ‘Public Perceptions of Bhutan’s Approach to Sustainable Development in Practice’, Sustainable Development, 15, pp. 52-68.
  133. Robinson, John and Godbey, Geoffrey (1997). Time For Life. The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time, University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  134. Rondinella, Tommaso; Segrez, Elisabetta and Mascherinix, Mas-similiano (2011). ‘Wellbeing in Italian Regions. Measures, Civil Society consultation and Evidence’, Social Indicators Research, 102:1, pp. 47-69 (May).
  135. Rosenberg, Erika L. and Ekman, Paul (1994). ‘Coherence Between Expressive and Experiential System Of Emotions’, Cognition and Emotion, 8, pp. 201-229.
  136. Royal Government of Bhutan (1999). Bhutan 2020: A Vision for Peace, Prosperity and Happiness, Thimphu: The Planning Com-mission [available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan005249.pdf accessed on 15 November 2011].
  137. Royal Government of Bhutan (2000). Bhutan National Human Development Report 2000, Thimphu: The Planning Commis-sion Secretariat [available at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan005248.pdf accessed 15 November 2011].
  138. Royal Government of Bhutan (2007). ‘Poverty Analysis Report 2007’, Thimphu: National Statistics Bureau [available at http://www.undp.org.bt/assets/files/publication/PAR_2007.pdf accessed on 15 November 2011].
  139. Royal Government of Bhutan (2009). ‘Tenth Five-Year Plan. 2008-2013’, Thimphu: Gross National Happiness Commission [available at http://www.unpei.org/PDF/Bhutan-TenthFiveYear-Plan_GrossNationalHappinessCommission.pdf accessed on 15 November 2011].
  140. Russell, James A. and Carroll, James M. (1999). ‘On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect’, Psychological Bulletin, 125, pp. 3-30.
  141. Saamah, Abdallah; Thompson, Sam; Michaelson, Juliet; Marks, Nic and Steuer, Nicola (2009). ‘Happy Planet Index 2.0’, London: The New Economic Foundation (June).
  142. Samman, Emma (2007). ‘Psychological and Subjective Well-being: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators’, Oxford Development Studies, 35(4), 459-486.
  143. Schimmel, Jiirg (2009). ‘Development as Happiness: The Subjec-tive Perception of Happiness and UNDP’s Analysis of Poverty, Wealth and Development’, Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, pp. 93-111.
  144. Schwarz, Norbert (2007). ‘Retrospective and Concurrent Self-Reports: The Rationale for Real-Time Data Capture’ in Stone, A.; Shiffman, S. S.; Atienza, A.; and Nebeling, L. (eds.), The science of real-time data capture: Self-reports in health research, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 11-26.
  145. Schwarz, Norbert (2011). ‘Why Researchers Should Think ‘Real-Time’: A Cognitive Rationale’, preliminary draft for M. R. Mehl and T. S. Conner (eds.), Handbook of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life, New York: Guilford (12 Dec).
  146. Schwartz, Shalom H. (1992). ‘Universals in the Content and Struc-ture of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries’, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, pp. 1-65.
  147. Schwartz, Shalom H. (2002). ‘Value Priorities and Behaviour: Applying a Theory of Integrated Value Systems’, Psicodebate: Psico-logia, Cultura y Sociedad, 2, pp. 119-144.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1554/30/12 3:57 PM156
  148. Sen, Amartya K. (2002). ‘Health: perception versus observa-tion. Self-reported morbidity has severe limitations and can be extremely misleading’, British Medical Journal, 324, 13 April, pp. 860-861.
  149. Sen Gupta, Bhabani (2009). Bhutan: Towards a Grass-Root Participatory Polity, New Delhi: The Center for Studies in Global Change, 1999.
  150. Singleton, Jerome F. and Harvey, Andrew (1995). ‘Stage of Lifecycle and Time Spent in Activities’, Journal of Occupational Science, 2:1, pp. 3-12.
  151. Sirken, Monroe; Jabine, Thomas; Willis, Gordon; Martin, Elizabeth and Tucker, Clyde (eds.) (1999). ‘A New Agenda for Interdisciplinary Survey Research Methods Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’, Hyattsville: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – U. S. National Centre for Health Statistics, January 1999.
  152. Smith, Melinda; Robinson, Lawrence and Segal, Robert (2011). ‘How Much Sleep Do You Need?’, Helpguide.org, October [avail-able at http://helpguide.org/life/sleeping.htm accessed on 10 November 2011].
  153. Sorber, A. (1993). ‘Performance Measurement in the Central Government Departments of the Netherlands’, Public Productivity and Management Review,17:1, pp. 59-68.
  154. Sorokin, Pitirim and Berger, Clarence (1939). Time-budgets of hu-man behavior, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  155. Sousa, Lorie and Lyubomirsky, Sonja (2001). ‘Life satisfaction’, in J. Worell (ed.), Encyclopedia of women and gender: Sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender. Volume 2, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 667-676.
  156. Staines, Graham L. and Pleck, Joseph H. (1983). The impact of work schedules on the family, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan-Institute for Social Research.
  157. Steinmann, Ralph M. (2010). ‘Spirituality – The Fourth Dimension of Health. An Evidence-Based Definition’, Geneva, presentation in the 20th IUHPE World Conference on Health Promoting Theory: Missing Elements and New Approaches, 11-15 July.
  158. Stiglitz, Joseph; Sen, Amartya K. and Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2009a). ‘Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress’, Paris: Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (14 September) [available at http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/docu-ments/rapport_anglais.pdf accessed on 14 September 2011].
  159. Stiglitz, Joseph; Sen, Amartya K. and Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2009b). ‘The Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Revisited. Reflections and Overview’, Paris: Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (16 September) [available at http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/docu-ments/overview-eng.pdf accessed on 14 September 2011].
  160. Stock, William A. and Okun, Morris A. (1982). ‘The Construct Validity of Life Satisfaction among the Elderly’, Journal of Geron-tology, 37:5, pp. 625-27.
  161. Stone, Melissa M. and Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Susan (2001). ‘Chal-lenges of measuring performance in nonprofit organizations’, in Flynn, Patrice and Hodgkinson, Virginia A. (eds.), Measuring the impact of the non-profit sector, New York: Kluwer Academic, pp. 33-54.
  162. Szalai, Sandor (1972). The use of time: Daily activities of urban and suburban populations in twelve countries, The Hague: Mouton.
  163. Tara, Green. Two meditation practices [available at www.losangsam-ten.com/sadhana/green_tara_2.pdf accessed on 15 September 2011].
  164. Thinley, Lyonpo Jigmi Y. (1998). ‘Values and Development: ‘Gross National Happiness’’, Seoul: The Millennium Meeting for Asia and the Pacific, (30 October-1 November).
  165. Thirgood, Simon J. and Redpath, Steve (2008). ‘Hen harriers and red grouse: science, politics and human–wildlife conflict’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, pp. 1550–1554.
  166. Tomkins, Silvan S. (1981). ‘The quest for primary motives: Biogra-phy and autobiography of an idea’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41:2, pp. 306-329.
  167. Tooby, John and Cosmides, Leda (2000). ‘Toward mapping the evolved functional organization of mind and brain’, in Gazzaniga, Michael S. (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences, Second Edition.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1167-1178.
  168. Torenvlied, René and Akkerman, Agnes (2009a). ‘Organiza-tional Environment: Effects of Network Ambition on Agency Performance’, paper prepared for presentation at the 10th Public Management Research Conference (PMRC), Columbus, Ohio, October 1-3.
  169. Torenvlied, René and Akkerman, Agnes (2009b). ‘Subjective and Objective Agency Performance: A Multilevel—Multistage Approach’, paper prepared for presentation at the 10th Public Management Research Conference (PMRC), Columbus, Ohio, October 1-3.
  170. Turton, Dan (2009). ‘The real dirt on happiness economics: A reply to ‘The unhappy thing about happiness economics’’, real-world economics review, 49, March, pp. 83-90[available at http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue49/Turton49.pdf accessed on 9 September 2011]
  171. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Bhutan (2008). ‘Bhutan’s Progress: Midway to the Millennium Development Goals’, Thimphu: UNDP, November 2008 [available at www.undp.org.bt/assets/files/publication/MDG_Midway.pdfaccessed on 10 October 2011].
  172. World Happiness reportUnited Nations Environment Programme and Louis Harris and Associates (1989). ‘Harris 1989 Environmental Survey in Four Continents, study no. 884002’, New York: Louis Harris and As-sociates [available at http://hdl.handle.net/1902.29/H-884002 accessed on 15 November 2011].
  173. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2010). ‘American Time Use Survey (ATUS) —2009 Results’ 22 June. [available at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/atus_06222010.pdf ac-cessed on 22 September 2011].
  174. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy People 2010,Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. United States Government Accountability Office (2011). ‘Key Indicator Systems. Experiences of Other National and Subnational Systems Offer Insights for the United States’, Washington, D. C.: GAO – Report to Congressional Addressees (March) (GAO 11-396)
  175. Ura, Karma (2008). ‘An Approach to the Indicators of GNH’, document presented at the Regional Conference on ‘Revitalizing Primary Health Care’, Jakarta: World Health Organization, 6-8 August. [available at http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Confer-ence_Panel-B3.pdf accessed on 9 November 2011].
  176. Ura, Karma (2009a). ‘A Proposal for GNH Value Education’, Thimphu, Bhutan.Ura, Karma (2009b). ‘Live Interview with Dasho Karma Ura by the Bhutan Broadcasting Service (BBS) Radio Programme’, Thimphu: BBS, 14 September. Ura, Karma (2011a). ‘Explanation of the GNH Index’, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies [available at http://www.grossna-tionalhappiness.com/gnhIndex/intruductionGNH.aspx accessed on 9 September 2011].Ura, Karma (2011b). ‘The Bhutanese Development Story’, Thim-phu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies [available at www.bhuta-nstudies.org.bt/pubFiles/mono-1en-bt-dev-stry.pdf accessed on 14 September 2011].
  177. Van de Walle, Steven and Bouckaert, Geert (2003). ‘Public service performance and trust in government: the problem of causality’, International Journal of Public Administration, 29 :8 & 9, pp. 891-913.
  178. Van Eerden, Mennobart R. (1990). ‘The solution of goose damage problems in the Netherlands, with special reference to compensa-tion schemes’, Ibis, 132, pp. 253-261.
  179. Van Hoorn, Andre (2007). ‘A Short Introduction To Subjective Well-Being: Its Measurement, Correlates And Policy Uses’, paper prepared for the international conference ‘Is happiness measurable and what do those measures mean for policy?’, Rome, April.
  180. Van Praag, Bernard M. S. (2007). ‘Perspectives from the Happi-ness Literature and the Role of New Instruments for Policy Analy-sis’, CESifo Economic Studies, 53, 1, pp. 42–68.
  181. Varni, James W.; Seid, Michael and Kurtin, Paul S. (1999). ‘Pe-diatric health-related quality of life measurement technology: A guide for health care decision makers’, Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management, 6, pp. 33-40.
  182. Veenhoven, Ruut (1991). ‘Is happiness relative?’, Social Indicators Research, 24, pp. 1-34.
  183. Veenhoven, Ruut (2004). ‘Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy. The greatest happiness principle’. In Linley, Alex and Joseph, Stephen (eds.) Positive Psychology in Practice, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, Chapter 39.
  184. Veenhoven, Ruut (2007). ‘Quality-of-Life Research’, in Bryant, C.D. and Peck, D.L., 21st Century Sociology, A Reference Handbook. Volume 2, Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp 54-62.
  185. Wandersmand, A. and Giamartino, G. A. (1980). ‘Community and individual difference characteristics as influences on initial partici-pation’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 8, pp. 217-228.
  186. Wang, Sonam W.; Curtis, Paul D. and Lassoie, James P. (2006). ‘Farmer perceptions of crop damage by wildlife in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park’, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34:2, pp. 359-365.
  187. Wangchuk, Dorji (2008). ‘Country Report: Bhutan’, document pre-pared for the ‘Training Course for Safeguarding of Intangible Cul-tural Heritage’, Tokyo: Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, 11-17 December [available at http://www.accu.or.jp/ich/en/training/country_report_pdf/08_09/country_report_bhutan_03.pdf ac-cessed on 24 September 2011].
  188. Wangdi, Karma (2009). ‘Health indicators’, Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies.
  189. Wangyal, Tenzin (2001). ‘Enormous Compassion. An interview with Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche’, Voice of Clear Light, Shipman VA: Ligmincha Institute September 18 [available at http://www.snowlionpub.com/pages/wangyalteaching1.html accessed on 14 November 2011].
  190. Ware, John E. (1995). ‘The status of health assessment 1994’, An-nual Review of Public Health, 16, pp. 327-54.Ware, John E. and Sherbourne, Cathy D. (1992). ‘The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36)’, Medical Care, 30:6, pp. 473-483.
  191. Watson, David; Clark, Lee A.; and Tellegen, Auke (1988). ‘Develop-ment and validation of brief measures of positive and negative af-fect: The PANAS Scales’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1063–1070.
  192. Watson, David and Tellegen, Auke (1999). ‘Issues in the dimen-sional structure of affect: Effects of descriptors, measurement error, and response formats: Comment on Russell and Carroll (1999)’, Psychological Bulletin, 125, pp. 601-610.65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1574/30/12 3:57 PM158
  193. Watson, David; Wiese, David; Vaidya, Jatin and Tellegen, Auke (1999). ‘The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, pp. 820-838.
  194. Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca and Winters, Matthew S. (2008). ‘Politi-cal Participation and Quality of Life’, Washington, D. C.: Inter-American Development Bank, July (Working Paper, 638).
  195. White, Michael J. and Hunter, Lori M. (2005). ‘Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting’, Providence: Brown University, 17 May [available at http://www.pstc.brown.edu/ghana/Papers/EnvPerc_White_Hunter.pdf accessed on 24 September 2011].
  196. Wiseman, John, and Brasher, Kathleen (2008). ‘Community Wellbeing in an Unwell World: Trends, Challenges and Possibili-ties’, Journal of Public Health Policy, 29, pp. 353–366.
  197. Wilkinson, Diana (1999). ‘Poor Housing and Ill Health: A Sum-mary of Research Evidence’, Edinburgh: The Scottish Office – Central Research Unit [available at http://scotland.gov.uk/Re-source/Doc/156479/0042008.pdf accessed on 10 October 2011].
  198. The World Bank (1992). Governance and Development, Washington, DC: World Bank.World Health Organization (WHO) (2010). ‘International Work-shop on Housing, Health and Climate Change: Developing guid-ance for health protection in the built environment mitigation and adaptation responses’, Geneva: WHO, 13-15 October.
  199. Yoshida, Rie and Nakano, Sachiko (2007). ‘Changes and Trends in Media Use: From the Results of the 2005 Japanese Time Use Survey’, NHK Broadcasting Studies, 5, pp. 117-142 [available at http://www.nhk.or.jp/bunken/english/reports/pdf/06-07_no5_07.pdf accessed on 10 November 2011].
  200. Zeppa, Jaime, (2006). ‘Surviving Happiness. Can happiness be a gross national product? The myth and reality of ‘progress’ in Bhutan’, Ascent Magazine, 32, Winter.
  201. Zurick, David (2006). ‘Gross National Happiness and Envi-ronmental Status in Bhutan’, Geographical Review, 96, 4, pp. 657-681. 65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1584/30/12 3:57 PM159World Happiness report65409_Earth_Chapter5v2.indd 1594/30/12 3:57 PM

The SELF Institute