Author(s):

  • Anne Schmitz
  • Heiko Kirschner
  • Andreas Hepp

Abstract:

This chapter examines the transnational Twitter followee-network of the Quantified Self (QS) and Maker movements. Based on a media ethnography as a pre-study, the following questions are addressed: How is the organisational elite of both pioneer communities connected? What patterns and peculiarities can be identified in terms of account types and thematic orientation? What similarities and differences exist between countries and between each community? The chapter sets out to explain the ways in which the organisational elite of the QS movement is represented as a network of opinion leaders, made up mostly of QS conference and meetup organisers with strong connections to tech entrepreneurs. The Maker movement is represented as a network of heterogeneous organisations which range from organisational accounts to tech companies, community platforms, and journalistic outlets as well as specific maker events and projects. Globally, both networks are dominated by members of their organisational elites which are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, which then go on to unfold their transnational influence. On this empirical basis, we argue that critical data studies should pay much more attention to the role played by pioneer communities and their partly invisible engagement in the global spread of imaginaries that promise to transform society through technology and data practices.

Documentation:

https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-96180-0_3

References:
  1. Abend, P., & Fuchs, M. (Eds.). (2016). Quantified selves and statistical bodies transcript. Bielefeld. Google Scholar 
  2. Ajana, B. (2017). Digital health and the biopolitics of the quantified self. Digital Health, 3, 1–18.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  3. Barbrook, R., & Cameron, A. (1996). The Californian ideology. Science as Culture, 6(1), 44–72.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  4. Barniskis, S. C. (2013). Makerspaces and teaching artists. The Teaching Artist Journal, 12, 6–14.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  5. Bowker, G. C. (2013). Data flakes. In L. Gitelman (Ed.), ‘Raw data’ is an oxymoron (pp. 167–171). MIT Press. Google Scholar 
  6. boyd, d., Golder, S., & Lotan, D. (2010). Conversational aspects of retweeting on Twitter. Presented at the HICSS-43. IEEE, Kauai, HI, January 6. Google Scholar 
  7. Bruns, A. (2019). Social media platforms and their fight against critical scholarly research. Information, Communication & Society, 22(11), 1544–1566.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  8. Bruns, A., & Moe, H. (2014). Structural layers of communication on Twitter. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess, M. Mahrt, & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 15–28). Peter Lang. Google Scholar 
  9. Cammaerts, B. (2005). ICT-usage among transnational social movements in the networked society. In E. Silverstone (Ed.), Media, technology and everyday life in Europe. Ashgate. Google Scholar 
  10. Castells, M. (2001). The Internet galaxy. Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar 
  11. Crawford, K., Lingel, J., & Karppi, T. (2015). Our metrics, ourselves. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 18, 479–496.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  12. Daub, A. (2020). What tech calls thinking. Macmillan. Google Scholar 
  13. Davies, S. R. (2017). Hackerspaces. Polity Press. Google Scholar 
  14. Didžiokaitė, G., Saukko, P., & Greiffenhagen, C. (2018). The mundane experience of everyday calorie trackers. New Media & Society, 20, 1470–1487.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  15. Esmonde, K. (2019). Accommodating and resisting self-surveillance in women’s running and fitness tracking practices. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(1), 1–15. Google Scholar 
  16. Fotopoulou, A. (2018). From networked to quantified self. In Z. Papacharissi (Ed.), A networked self (pp. 144–159). Routledge. Google Scholar 
  17. Fredriksson, M., & Pallas, J. (2017). The localities of mediatization: How organizations translate mediatization into everyday practices. In O. Driessens, G. Bolin, A. Hepp, & S. Hjarvard (Eds.), Dynamics of mediatization (pp. 119–136). Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  18. Gaffney, D. (2010). Quantifying online activism. Extending the frontiers of society on-line. Presented at the WebSci10, Raleigh, North Carolina, 26–27 April 2010. Google Scholar 
  19. Gauntlett, D. (2018). Making is connecting. Polity Press. Google Scholar 
  20. González-Bailón, & Wang, N. (2016). Networked discontent: The anatomy of protest campaigns in social media. Social Networks, 44, 95–104. Google Scholar 
  21. Gruzd, A., Wellman, B., & Takhteyev, Y. (2001). Imagining Twitter as an imagined community american behavioural. Scientist, 55(10), 1294–1318. Google Scholar 
  22. Hepp, A. (2016). Pioneer communities. Media, Culture and Society, 38(6), 918–933.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  23. Hepp, A. (2018). What makes a maker? Nordisk Tidsskrift for Informationsvidenskab Og Kulturformidling, 7(2), 3–18.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  24. Hepp, A. (2020a). Deep mediatization. Polity Press. Google Scholar 
  25. Hepp, A. (2020b). The fragility of curating a pioneer community: Deep mediatization and the spread of the quantified self and maker movements. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 23(6), 932–950.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  26. Hepp, A., Breiter, A., & Friemel, T. (2018). Digital traces in context. International Journal of Communication, 12, 439–449. Google Scholar 
  27. Hepp, A., Alpen, S., & Simon, P. (2021a). Beyond empowerment, experimentation and reasoning: The public discourse around the Quantified Self movement. Communications, 46(1), 27–51.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  28. Hepp, A., Benz, S., & Simon, P. (2021b). Zwischen Utopie und Dystopie: Wie der öffentliche Diskurs über die Maker- und Quantified-Self-Bewegung in Deutschland und Großbritannien die Pioniergemeinschaften zu Treibern tiefgreifender Mediatisierung macht. M & K Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft, 69(2), S. 270–298. https://doi.org/10.5771/1615-634X-2021-2-211
  29. Highfield, T., Harrington, S., & Bruns, A. (2013). Twitter as a technology for audiencing and fandom. Information, Communication & Society, 16(3), 315–339.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  30. Hitzler, R., & Niederbacher, A. (2010). Leben in Szenen: Formen jugendlicher Vergemeinschaftung heute. VS.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  31. Hunsinger, J., & Schrock, A. (2016). The democratization of hacking and making. New Media & Society, 18, 535–538.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  32. Irani, L. (2015). Hackathons and the making of entrepreneurial citizenship. Science, Technology & Human Values, 40(5), 799–824.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  33. Kannengießer, S., & Kubitschko, S. (2017). Acting on media. Media and Communication, 5, 1–4.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  34. Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal influence. The part played by people in mass communication. Free Press. Google Scholar 
  35. Kostakis, V., Niaros, V., & Giotitsas, C. (2015). Production and governance in hackerspaces. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 18, 555–573.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  36. Lange, B. (2015). Fablabs und hackerspaces. Ökologisches Wirtschaften, 30, 8–9.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  37. Leavitt, A. (2013). Exploring the cultural salience of Twitter memes. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess, M. Mahrt, & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 137–154). Peter Lang. Google Scholar 
  38. Lindtner, S. M. (2020). Prototype nation. Princeton University Press.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  39. Lomborg, S., & Frandsen, K. (2015). Self-tracking as communication. Information, Communication & Society, 19, 1015–1027.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  40. Lotan, G., Graeff, E., Ananny, M., Gaffney, D., Pearce, I., & boyd, d. (2011). Information flows during the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. International Journal of Communication, 5, 1375–1405. Google Scholar 
  41. Lupton, D. (2014). Self-tracking modes. Available at SSRN 2483549. Google Scholar 
  42. Lupton, D. (2015). Quantified sex. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17, 440–453.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  43. Maireder, A., & Schlögl, S. (2015). Twitter-Öffentlichkeiten. In A. Maireder, J. Ausserhofer, C. Schuhmann, & M. Taddicken (Eds.), Digitale Methoden (pp. 115–139). Kommunikationswissenschaft. Google Scholar 
  44. Menichinelli, M. (2016). Mapping the structure of the global maker laboratories community through Twitter connections. In C. Levallois, M. Marchand, T. Mata, & A. Panisson (Eds.), Twitter for research handbook 2015–2016 (pp. 47–62). EMLYON Press. Google Scholar 
  45. Nafus, D. (Ed.). (2016). Quantified. MIT Press. Google Scholar 
  46. Nascimento, S., & Pólvora, A. (2016). Maker cultures and the prospects for technological action. Science and Engineering Ethics, Online First, 1–20. Google Scholar 
  47. Neff, G., & Nafus, D. (2016). Self-tracking. MIT Press.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  48. Nepstad, S., & Bob, C. (2006). When do leaders matter? Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 11, 1–22.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  49. Nguyen, J. (2016). Make magazine and the social reproduction of DIY science and technology. Cultural Politics, 12, 233–252.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  50. Pantzar, M., & Ruckenstein, M. (2014). The heart of everyday analytics. Consumption Markets & Culture, 18, 92–109.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  51. Paßmann, J., Boeschoten, T., & Schäfer, M. T. (2014). The gift of the gab. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess, M. Mahrt, & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and society (pp. 331–344). Peter Lang. Google Scholar 
  52. Peppler, K., Halverson, E., & Kafai, Y. B. (Eds.). (2016). Makeology. Routledge. Google Scholar 
  53. Puschmann, C. (2019). An end to the wild west of social media research. Information, Communication & Society, 22(11), 1582–1589.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  54. Puschmann, C., & Burgess, J. (2014). Metaphors of big data. International Journal of Communication, 8, 16900–11709. Google Scholar 
  55. Ramsauer, C., & Firessnig, M. (2016). Einfluss der Maker Movement auf die Forschung und Entwicklung. In Techno-Ökonomie-Forum (Ed.), Industrial engineering und management (pp. 43–61). Springer Gabler. Google Scholar 
  56. Ratto, M., & Boler, M. (Eds.). (2014). DIY citizenship. MIT Press. Google Scholar 
  57. Richterich, A. (2017). Hacking events. Convergence, Online First. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856517709405
  58. Ruckenstein, M., & Pantzar, M. (2017). Beyond the quantified self. New Media & Society, 19, 401–418.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  59. Sajuria, J., Van Heerde-Hudson, J., Hudson, D., Dasandi, N., & Theocharis, Y. (2015). Tweeting alone? American Politics Research, 43(4), 708–738.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  60. Sharon, T. (2017). Self-tracking for health and the quantified self. Philosophy & Technology, 30, 93–121.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  61. Sharon, T., & Zandbergen, D. (2016). From data fetishism to quantifying selves. New Media & Society, 19, 1695–1709.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  62. Sivek, S. C. (2011). We need a showing of all hands. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 35, 187–209.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  63. Swan, M. (2013). The quantified self. Big Data, 1, 85–99.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  64. Theocharis, Y., Vitoratou, S., & Sajuria, J. (2017). Civil society in times of crisis. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(5), 248–265.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  65. Tilson, D., Lyytinen, K., & Sørensen, C. (2010). Research commentary-digital infrastructures. Information Systems Research, 21(4), 748–759.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  66. Toombs, A., Bardzell, S., & Bardzell, J. (2014). Becoming makers. Journal of Peer Production, 5, 1–8. Google Scholar 
  67. Turner, F. (2018). Millenarian tinkering. Technology and Culture, 9, 160–S182.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  68. Turner, F. (2006). From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. The University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar 
  69. Williamson, B. (2015). Algorithmic skin. Sport, Education and Society, 20, 133–151.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
  70. Xu, W. W., Sang, Y., Blasiola, S., & Park, H. W. (2014). Predicting opinion leaders in Twitter activism networks. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(10), 1278–1293.CrossRef  Google Scholar 
The SELF Institute