- Yang, Nan
- van Hout, Gerbrand
- Feijs, Loe
- Chen, Wei
- Hu, Jun
INTRODUCTION: Quantified-self application is widely used in sports and health management; the type and amount of data that can be detected and fed back to the user are growing rapidly. However, only a few studies discussed the social attributes of quantified-self data, especially in the context of cycling.
OBJECTIVES: To design and evaluate SocialBike – a digitally augmented bicycle that aims to increase user’s motivation in physical activity by showing their quantified-self data to each other.
METHODS: We conducted a within-subject experiment on a cycling simulation system with 20 participants. The on-bike display of SocialBike was compared to a control display to evaluate its impact on two dependent variables, including user’s intrinsic motivation in physical activity and social relatedness with other cyclists nearby. Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was used to measure users’ self-reported intrinsic motivation and social relatedness. The user’s cycling behaviour data were also recorded by the simulation system. We extracted six indicators about the two dependent variables from the behaviour data. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. We conducted a paired sample T-test on both types of quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed by the method of thematic analysis.
RESULTS: The results of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory show that SocialBike’s on-bike display has significant positive effects on four subscales, including intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, values/usefulness, and relatedness. The results of user cycling behaviour indicate that SocialBike increased user’s social relatedness with other cyclists nearby by significantly affecting three indicators. Three themes were identified from qualitative data, including motivation, social interaction, and data visualization. The qualitative result provides supplementary evidence for the quantitative result and additional insights into the overall design of SocialBike.
CONCLUSION: SocialBike as a platform for sharing quantified-self data have positive effects in enhancing users’ intrinsic motivation in physical activity and social relatedness with other cyclists nearby.
-  Epstein, D. A., Jacobson, B. H., Bales, E., McDonald, D. W., & Munson, S. A. From nobody cares to way to go!: A Design Framework for Social Sharing in Personal Informatics. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing; ACM; 2015. pp. 1622-1636.
-  Burgoon, Judee K., Laura K. Guerrero, and Kory Floyd. Nonverbal communication. Routledge, 2016.
-  Yang, N., van Hout, G., Feijs, L., Chen, W., & Hu, J. SocialBike: Quantified-Self Data as Social Cue in Physical Activity. In EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare: Springer; 2019. Cham. pp. 92-107.
-  Ivanov, A., Sharman, R., & Rao, H. R. Exploring factors impacting sharing health-tracking records. Health Policy and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 263-276.
-  Curmi, F., Ferrario, M. A., & Whittle, J. Biometric data sharing in the wild: Investigating the effects on online sports spectators. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 2017; 105: 56-67.
-  Hassib, M., Buschek, D., Wozniak, P. W., & Alt, F. HeartChat: Heart rate augmented mobile chat to support empathy and awareness. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; ACM; 2017. pp. 2239-2251.
-  Mauriello, M., Gubbels, M., & Froehlich, J. E. (2014, April). Social fabric fitness: the design and evaluation of wearable E-textile displays to support group running. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; ACM; 2014. pp. 2833-2842.
-  Walmink, W., Wilde, D., & Mueller, F. F. Displaying heart rate data on a bicycle helmet to support social exertion experiences. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction; ACM; 2014. pp. 97-104.
-  Colley, A., Pfleging, B., Alt, F., & Häkkilä, J. Exploring public wearable display of wellness tracker of Human-Computer data. International Journal Studies. 2020; 138, 102408.
-  Dagan, E., Márquez Segura, E., Altarriba Bertran, F., Flores, M., Mitchell, R., & Isbister, K. Design Framework for Social Wearables. InProceedings of the 2019 on Designing Interactive Systems Conference; 2019. pp. 1001- 1015.
-  Dierk, C., Nicholas, M. J. P., & Paulos, E. AlterWear: battery-free wearable displays for opportunistic interactions. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; ACM; 2018. pp. 1- 11.
-  Liu, X., Vega, K., Qian, J., Paradiso, J., & Maes, P. Fluxa: Body movements as a social display. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology; ACM; 2016. pp. 155-157.
-  Ikeda, K., Koizumi, N., & Naemura, T. FunCushion: fabricating functional cushion interfaces with fluorescent- pattern displays. In International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment; Springer, Cham; 2017. pp. 470- 487.
-  Kan, V., Fujii, K., Amores, J., Zhu Jin, C. L., Maes, P., & Ishii, H. Social textiles: Social affordances and icebreaking interactions through wearable social messaging. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction; ACM; 2015. pp. 619-624
-  Genç, Ç., Erkaya, M., Balcı, F., & Özcan, O. Exploring Dynamic Expressions on Soft Wearables for Physical Exercises. In Proceedings of the DIS 2018 Companion Publication of the 2018 Designing Interactive Systems Conference; ACM; 2018. pp. 147-152.
-  Harjuniemi,E.,Colley,A.,Rytilahti,P.,Li,H.,Forest,J.,& Häkkilä, J. Idle stripes shirt: ambient wearable display for activity tracking. InProceedings of the 2018 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers; 2018; ACM. pp. 254-259.
-  Yang, N., van Hout, G., Feijs, L. M., Chen, W., Hu, J., Novais, P., & Konomi, S. i-Ribbon: Social Expression Through Wearables to Support Weight-Loss Efforts. In Intelligent Environments; 2016; IOS Press. pp. 524-533.
-  Yang, N., van Hout, G., Feijs, L., Chen, W., & Hu, J. Eliciting values through wearable expression in weight loss. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services; 2017; ACM. pp1-6.
-  Kleinman, L., Hirsch, T., & Yurdana, M. Exploring mobile devices as personal public displays. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services; 2015; ACM. pp. 233-243.
-  Jarusriboonchai, P., Li, H., Harjuniemi, E., Müller, H., & Häkkilä, J. Always with Me: Exploring Wearable Displays as a Lightweight Intimate Communication Channel. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction; 2020. pp. 771-783.
-  Pearson, J., Robinson, S., & Jones, M. It’s About Time: Smartwatches as public displays. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2015; ACM. pp. 1257-1266.
-  GoogleFit:https://developers.google.com/fit/
-  Yang, N., van Hout, G., Feijs, L., Chen, W., & Hu, J. Supporting weight loss through digitally-augmented social expression. In International Conference on Human- Computer Interaction ; 2019; Springer, Cham. pp. 459-470.
-  Yang,N.,vanHout,G.,Feijs,L.,Chen,W.,&Hu,J.(2019, September). Simulating social cycling experience in design research. In International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design: Future Trends and Applications; 2019; Springer, Cham. pp. 379-384.
-  McAuley, E., Duncan, T., & Tammen, V. V. Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 1989; 60(1): 48-58.
-  Standage, M., & Ryan, R. M. Handbook of sport psychology. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2019. Self- determination theory in sport and exercise. pp. [352-378].